The reason for the performance-enhancing effect of high altitude training is easily explained: As a result of the oxygen deficiency experienced at high altitude, the human organisms are forced to adapt. Primarily affected are respiration, the cardiovascular system and the blood. The adjustment process takes place on two levels. In order to supply the organisms with sufficient oxygen despite the reduced atmospheric oxygen pressure, respiration, the cardiovascular system and the blood are activated.
To a certain extent this also results in an increase in the red blood cell count. Additionally, the function of the cells changes and they produce more energy in an anaerobic manner, i.e. without the use of atmospheric oxygen. For sports participants, this means that even staying at high altitude has a slight training effect. An altitude range of between 1500 and 2200 m above sea level is optimum. Training activities carried out at this height have a more intense effect than those carried out at sea level.